MOUNTAINS



A mountain is generally steeper than a hill. Mountains 
are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism. 
The mountains are very huge and steep. These forces
 can locally raise the surface of the earth.


mount everest | by goodnewz
Talking about mountains the first name comes to 
Mount Everest which usually very large and the
 biggest mountain in the world and is located in Nepal.


There are many mountains in the world but we gonna
 only talk about the world’s biggest mountain the
 Mount Everest.


THE MOUNT EVEREST



The highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the HimalayasAsia, whose summit
 is 8,850 m (29,035 ft) above mean sea level. The highest know for the mountain on any
 planet in the Solar System is Olympus Monson Mars at 21,171 m (69,459 ft). 


There is no universally accepted definition of a mountain. Elevation, volume, relief, 
steepness, spacing, and continuity have been used as criteria for defining a mountain

Whether a landform is called a mountain may depend on local usage. Mount Scott outside 
 Lawton Oklahoma, USA, is only 251 m (823 ft) from its base to its highest point. Whittow's
 Dictionary of Physical Geography states "Some authorities regard eminences above 
600 meters (2,000 ft) as mountains, those below being referred to as hills." 




  • Elevation of at least 2,500 m (8,200 ft);
  • Elevation of at least 1,500 m (4,900 ft), with a slope greater than 2 degrees;
  • Elevation of at least 1,000 m (3,300 ft), with a slope greater than 5 degrees;
  • Elevation of at least 300 m (980 ft), with a 300 m (980 ft) elevation range within 7 km (4.3 mi).
Using these definitions, mountains cover 33% of Eurasia, 19% of South America, 24% of
 North America, and 14% of Africa. As a whole, 24% of the Earth's landmass is mountainous.


CLIMATE


The climate in the mountains becomes colder at high elevation, due to an interaction between 
 radiation and convection. Sunlight in the visible spectrum hits the ground and heats it. The ground
 then heats the air at the surface. If radiation were the only way to transfer heat from the ground to
 space, the greenhouse effect of gases in the atmosphere would keep the ground at roughly 333 K
 (60 °C; 140 °F), and the temperature would decay exponentially with height.
However, when air is hot, it tends to expand, which lowers its density. Thus, hot air tends to rise
 and transfer heat upward. This is the process of convection. Convection comes to equilibrium
 when a parcel of air at a given altitude has the same density as its surroundings. Air is a poor
 conductor of heat, so a parcel of air will rise and fall without exchanging heat. This is known as
 an adiabatic process, which has a characteristic pressure-temperature dependence. As the
 pressure gets lower, the temperature decreases. The rate of decrease of temperature with
 elevation is known as the adiabatic lapse rate, which is approximately 9.8 °C per kilometer
(or 5.4 °F (3.0 °C) per 1000 feet) of altitude.
Note that the presence of water in the atmosphere complicates the process of convection. 
Water vapor contains latent heat of vaporization. As air rises and cools, it eventually becomes  
saturated and cannot hold its quantity of water vapor. The water vapor condenses (forming clouds),
 and releases heat, which changes the lapse rate from the dry adiabatic lapse rate to the moist
 adiabatic lapse rate(5.5 °C per kilometer or 3 °F (1.7 °C) per 1000 feet) The actual lapse rate can
 vary by altitude and by location.